Best vitamin B12 foods: Supplements and RDA
Article Source: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/vitamin-b12-foods
Accessed from the world wide web at 09:00 hrs on 27.07.20.
Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient for good health. Most people can obtain it from a varied diet that includes animal products. However, people eating a plant-based diet can only get vitamin B12 from fortified foods or supplements.
Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that is important for proper red blood cell formation, neurological function, and DNA synthesis.
A vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to anaemia, as well as neurological and psychiatric symptoms.
People who may be at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency include older adults, people following a vegan diet, and individuals with increased vitamin B12 requirements due to specific health conditions.
Best foods containing vitamin B12
Animal products, such as meat, fish, and eggs, contain vitamin B12 in varying amounts. The following is a list of good sources:
- canned tuna
- low fat yogurt
- low fat milk
- chicken breast
A person should consume these foods in moderation as part of a healthful diet. Learn how to eat a healthful diet here.
The above food sources are all unsuitable for people following an entirely plant-based diet.
Vitamin B12 is not present in plant foods, so people on a plant-based diet need to obtain it through fortified foods and supplements.
Foods that are sometimes fortified and may contain vitamin B12 in varying amounts include:
- plant milk, such as soy, almond, oat, cashew, and coconut milk
- breakfast cereals
- margarine and spreads
- nutritional yeast
- fruit juice
- dairy-free yogurt
It is important to read the nutritional information on a fortified product to ensure that it contains vitamin B12.
Foods or drinks to avoid
Some foods and drinks can interfere with vitamin B12 intake:
Folic acid-fortified foods
Folate (vitamin B9) is an essential nutrient, especially before and during pregnancy. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) state that women of reproductive age need 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid (synthetic folate) each day.
However, too much folic acid can mask a vitamin B12 deficiency. Research suggests that high folate levels can even exacerbate the anemia and cognitive symptoms associated with a lack of vitamin B12. For these reasons, folic acid intake from fortified foods should not exceed 1,000 mcg daily in adults with a good overall health status.
Research has suggested that the consumption of alcohol may reduce vitamin B12 levels.
An older study indicated that moderate alcohol intake diminished vitamin B12 by 5% among “healthy, well-nourished, postmenopausal women.”
Alcohol-related liver disease may falsely increase vitamin B12 test levels. People with alcohol use disorder may need supplements to correct vitamin B12 deficiency and anemia.
Foods with insufficient vitamin B12
Some people believe that certain plant-based foods are good sources of vitamin B12. These foods include:
- dried nori
- barley grass
- other seaweeds
- raw foods
However, many researchers believe that these foods are not adequate to correct a deficiency of vitamin B12. For instance, the vitamin B12 in cyanobacteria, such as spirulina, has very low bioavailability.
Therefore, although people can include the above foods as part of a healthful diet, they should not rely on them as a source of vitamin B12.
Daily recommended intake
The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for vitamin B12 varies according to a person’s age and whether they are pregnant or breastfeeding.
The following table shows the RDA for vitamin B12:
|14 years and over||2.4 mcg|
|9–13 years||1.8 mcg|
|4–8 years||1.2 mcg|
|1–3 years||0.9 mcg|
|7–12 months||0.5 mcg|
|0–6 months||0.4 mcg|
|During pregnancy||2.6 mcg|
|While breastfeeding||2.8 mcg|
There is no known risk of having too much vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12 supplements